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Citing electronic documents: Electronic journals


Follow these guidelines when your source document is in electronic form only. Electronic versions of articles which are published also in paper journals (e.g. PDF versions of articles) are cited the same way as articles published on paper.

Electronic journal articles

Use these instructions when you are citing a document which is available ONLY electronically.

In-text citation

Author and year. If there are marked sections and/or paragraphs in the text you may use them the same way as page numbers are used.

(Krzywinski 2018)

(Morris 2004, sec. 3, par. 2)

Reference list 

Morris, A., 2004. 'Is this racism? Representations of South Africa in the Sydney Morning Herald since the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as president'. Australian Humanities Review, no. 33, [Online]. [Cited 2007-05-11]. Available:

Where do I find electronic articles?

E-articles can be searched in Finna or via the user interfaces of available databases. Also Google Scholar returns information about electronic articles. Both in Finna and in the user interfaces of many databases the search can be limited to those documents of which the user can access the full text. Accessing the full text requires logging in by using LUT / Saimaa UAS username and password.