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LAB Guide to Publishing and Open Science: Citation Guide for LAB Publications

The Harvard system

LAB Publication Series and the online journals in LAB Open use the Harvard system of referencing.

The Harvard referencing system is the most common variant of name-year systems. In this system, the author's surname and publication year are mentioned in in-text citations. When citing specific information or idea, the page numbers are also added,  in condition that they are provided. This way the reader is readily informed of the author and the age of the information cited. The bibliography should be in alphabetical order by author.

For more information on referencing and guidelines for using the in-text citations, please see How and why to cite?

List of references

  • References are organised alphabetically according to the first author's surname
  • If there are several references by the same author they will be organised according the publication year
  • If the same author has several publications during the same year,  the references are separated by adding a lower case letter after the publication year (2018a, 2018b, 2018c etc.). Lower case letters are used in both in-text citations and the list of references accordingly.

Bibliography: Digital resources

Please use hyperlinks!

Journal articles

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of article. Name of journal. Volume. Issue. Page numbers of the article. Date of citation. Available at: DOI

Howell, A., Dopko, R., Passmore, H-A. & Buro, K. 2011. Nature connectedness: Associations with well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences. Vol.51(2), 166-171. [Cited 13 Nov 2017]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.037

Lassalle, V. L. & Failla, M. D. & Vallés, E. M. & Martin-Martinez, J. M. 2004. Chemical modification of styrene-butadiene-styrene co-polymer by grafting of N-carbamyl maleamic acid. Journal of adhesion science and technology.  Vol. 18 (15),1849-1860. [Cited 14 Feb 2015]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1163/1568561042708359

Electronic newspaper and magazine articles

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of article. Name of newspaper or magazine. Date of citation. Available at: URL

Wadhwa, V. 2017. What Google and Facebook must do about one of their biggest problems. The Washington Post. [Cited 12 May 2017]. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2017/04/12/what-google-and-facebook-must-do-about-one-of-their-biggest-problems/?utm_term=.7721926434da

Heller, N. 2017. Is the gig economy working? The New Yorker. [Cited 23 May 2017]. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/05/15/is-the-gig-economy-working

Article in a compilation

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article. In: Editor(s) of compilation. Title of compilation. Edition if more than one. Place of publication: Publisher. Possible series entry. Pages of the article. Date of citation. Available at: URN or URL

Sore, S. 2016. Learning new skills in projects. In: Sore, S. & Kotonen, U. (eds.). Lahti UAS ICT projects 2016. Lahti: Lahti University of Applied Sciences. The Publication Series of Lahti University of Applied Sciences, part 26. 15-16. [Cited 8 Sept 2017]. Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-2016122121344

E-books

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of citation. Available at: URL

Jacobsen, H. A. 2014. Chemical reactor modeling : multiphase reactive flows. Berlin: Springer. [Cited 7 Oct 2015]. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-05092-8

Chapter in E-book

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of Chapter. In: Editor(s) of book. Title of book. Edition if more than one. Place of publication: Publisher.  Pages of the chapter. Date of citation. Available at: URN or URL

Lee, J., Park, B., Tyrväinen, L., Li, Q., Kagawa, T., Miyazaki, Y. & Tsunetsugu, Y. 2012. Nature therapy and preventive medicine. In: Maddock, J.(ed.). Public Health - Social and Behavioral Health. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech. 325-350. [Cited 19 Oct 2016]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/37701

Theses

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of publication. Type of thesis. University, department or equivalent. Place of publication. Possible series entry. Date of citation. Available at: URN or DOI

Bista, N. 2017. International Student Recruitment Process. Bachelor's thesis. Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Business and Hospitality Management. Lahti. [Cited 18 May 2017]. Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-2016112617641

Liao, W. 2017. Seeking criteria for biodiversity roofs under Finnish conditions. Master's thesis. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences. Helsinki. [Cited 9 Feb 2017]. Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:hulib-201703283736

Ojala, M. 2017. The Making of a Global Elite : Global Economy and the Davos Man in the Financial Times 2001 - 2011. Doctoral dissertation. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, Research Programs Unit, Media and Communication Studies. Helsinki. Publications of the Faculty of Social Sciences 2017:47. [Cited 21 Apr 2017]. Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-2600-9

Conference papers

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of paper.  In: Editors. Title of conference publication. Edition, if more than one. Place and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher or organiser of conference. Possible series entry. Page numbers of the article. Date of citation. Available at: URN or DOI

Harmaala, M-M. 2016. Can Sharing Cities Promote Sustainability. In: Aalto A. & Montonen L. Smart Cities in Smart Regions 2016 : Conference Proceedings. Lahti, Finland. May 10-12 2016. Lahti: Lahti University of Applied Sciences. The publication series of Lahti Universiy of Applied Sciences, part 27. 118-125. [Cited 19 May 2017]. Available at: URN:ISBN:978-951-827-264-2

Other online documents

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of publication. Place of publication: Publisher. Possible series entry. Date of citation. Available at: URN or URL

Sonntag, U. & Wagner, P. 2016. Positioning and potentials of Finland on the German holiday travel market. Kiel: F. U. R. Forschungsgemeinschaft Urlaub und Reisen. [Cited 5 Dec 2016]. Available at: http://www.visitfinland.fi/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/RA2016_Finland_Report.pdf?dl

Websites

Author(s) or administrator responsible for the site. Year of publication or latest update if known. Title of website. Date of citation. Available at: URL

Purdue University. The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL). [Cited 7 Apr 2017]. Available at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/

Ellen MacArthur Foundation. 2017. Building blocks of a circular economy. [Cited 16 Oct 2019]. Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/building-blocks

Bibliography: Oral resources

Interviews

Name of interviewee. Year. Job title. Organization. Date of interview.

Meikäläinen, M. 2020. Senior lecturer. LAB University of Applied Sciences. Interview 20.1.2020.

Bibliography: Printed resources

Journal articles

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of article. Name of journal. Volume. Issue. Page numbers of the article.

Al-Jabari, M. 2004. Dynamics of chelation-supercritical fluid extraction from wood fibers. Journal of separation science. Vol. 27 (9), 686-690.

Vermeulen, M., van Acker, F., Kreijns, K. and van Buuren, H. 2015. Does transformational leadership encourage teachers’ use of digital learning materials. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. Vol. 43 (6), 1006-1025.

Books, series and reports

Author(s), editor(s). Year of publication. Title. Edition if more than one. Place of publication: Publisher. Possible series entry and/or report code.

Suler, J.R. 2016. Psychology of the Digital Age: humans become electric. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Goodman, E. & Kuniavsky, M. & Moed, A. 2012. Observing the user experience: a practitioner's guide to user research. 2nd ed. Waltham, USA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers.

Wilson, S. 1984. Electron correlation in molecules. 2nd ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. International series of monographs on chemistry 11.

Article or chapter in a compilation

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article or chapter. In: Editor(s) of compilation. Title of compilation. Edition if more than one. Place of publication: Publisher. Possible series entry. Pages of the article or chapter.

Jonson, M. 1992. Tunneling times in quantum mechanical tunneling. In: Ferry, D. K. & Jacoboni, C. (eds) Quantum transport in semiconductors. New York, USA: Plenum Press. Physics of solids and liquids.193-238.

Theses

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of publication. Type of thesis. University, department or equivalent. Place of publication. Possible series entry.

Teikari, P. 2006. Biological effects of light. Master's thesis. Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Communications and Networking. Espoo.

Airola, N. 2017. Methods for analysing paper machine efficiency. Doctoral dissertation. Aalto University, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems. Helsinki. Aalto University publication series Doctoral dissertations 64/2017.

Conference papers

Author(s). Year of publication. Title of paper. In: Editors. Title of conference publication. Edition, if more than one. Place and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher or organiser of conference. Possible series entry. Page numbers of the article.

Sinisalo, R. 2015. Customizing New Library Catalogue for Information Literacy, Digital Collections and Sustainable Development. In: Kurbanoglu, S. & Boustany, J. & Spiranec, S. & Grassian, E. & Mizrachi, D. & Roy, L. (eds.) Information literacy: moving towards sustainability. Third European Conference, ECIL 2015, Tallinn, Estonia, October 19-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Tallinn, Estonia October 19-22 2015. Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG. Communications in Computer and Information Science 522. 38-46.

Oliveira, P. J. & Issa, R. I. 2003. Numerical aspects of an algorithm for the Eulerian simulation of two-phase flows. In: Morgan, K. & Weatherill, N. P. (eds.) ECCOMAS Computational fluid dynamics conference part V. University of Wales, Swansea, United Kingdom. 4-7.9.2001. International journal for numerical methods in fluids. 2003. Vol. 43 (10-11), 1177-1198.

Standards

The mark and number. Year of publication. Title of standard. Edition if more than one. Place of publication: Publisher.

ISO-690-2. 1997. Information and documentation: bibliographic references. Part 2: Electronic documents or parts thereof. Genève: International organization for standardization.

Patents

Country of publication and number of the patent. Year of publication. Title of patent. Patentee, Domicile. (Inventor) Application number, Date of filing. Date of publication.

EP 1713073 A1. 2006. Universal housing for holding storage devices. Quantum Corporation, San Jose, US. (Thorson, Thomas A.) 06252028.3. 12.04.2006. Publ. 18.10.2006.

Bibliography: Images

Images taken from the internet

Author(s). Title of image. Date of citation. Available at: URL.

IMAGE 1. Richard R. Nagy: Datamancer’s Steampunk Laptop. [Cited 7 Aug 2016]. Available at: http://www.datamancer.net/steampunklaptop/steampunklaptop.htm

Images taken from printed books

Author(s). Year. Title of image. Editor(s). Year of publication. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Page of the image.

IMAGE 2. Halttunen, K. & al. 2001. Tiedonhallintataitojen kehittymistä kuvaava käsitekartta. In: Halttunen, K. & al. Tiedonhakijan opas. Helsinki: BTJ Kirjastopalvelu. 18.

Creator: Title of Picture/Photograph/Illustration/Painting. Year. Format and/or location. Author(s) or Editor(s). Year of publication. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Page of the picture.

IMAGE 3. Hals, Frans: Hilpeä juomaveikko. 1628-30. Canvas 81 x 66,5 cm. In: Honour, H. & Fleming, J. 1992. Maailman taiteen historia. Helsinki: Otava. 514.